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Turbine flow meter

By | 06.10.2020

Good repeatability short-term one reaches 0. For instance, low temperature type, high pressure type, sanitary type, etc. So it is the ideal instrument of measuring flow value and saving energy.

Turbine Flow Meters measure the velocity of liquids, gases and vapors in pipes, such as hydrocarbons in fuel flow measurement, chemical flow metering, water flow metering, cryogenic liquid flow metering, air or gas flow metering, and general industrial flow metering. Blades on the rotor are angled to transform energy from the flow stream into rotational energy. The rotor shaft spins on bearings.

When the fluid moves faster, the rotor spins proportionally faster. Shaft rotation can be sensed mechanically or by detecting the movement of the blades. Blade movement is often detected magnetically, with each blade or embedded piece of metal generating a pulse. Turbine flowmeter sensors are typically located external to the flowing stream to avoid material of construction constraints that would result if wetted sensors were used.

When the fluid moves faster, more pulses are generated. The transmitter processes the pulse signal to determine the flow of the fluid.

Transmitters and sensing systems are available to sense flow in both the forward and reverse flow directions. The cost is moderate. Very good at clean, low viscosity fluids of moderate velocity and a steady rate. Turndown is very good as it can read very low compared to the maximum flow.

They are reliable if put in a clean fluid especially if it has some lubricity. They do cause some pressure drop where that may be a factor such as gravity flows.

turbine flow meter

Not reliable for steam. Bearings wear out. Turbine flowmeters measure the velocity of liquids, gases and vapors in pipes, such as hydrocarbons, chemicals, water, cryogenic liquids, air, and industrial gases.

High accuracy turbine flowmeters are available for custody transfer of hydrocarbons and natural gas. These flowmeters often incorporate the functionality of a flow computer to correct for pressure, temperature and fluid properties in order to achieve the desired accuracy for the application. Be careful using turbine flowmeters on fluids that are non-lubricating because the flowmeter can become inaccurate and fail if its bearings prematurely wear. Some turbine flowmeters have grease fittings for use with non-lubricating fluids.

This flowmeter can be applied to sanitary, relatively clean, and corrosive liquids in sizes up to approximately 24 inches.

The Electromagnetic Flow Measuring Principle

Smaller turbine flowmeters can be installed directly in the piping, but the size and weight of larger turbine flowmeters may require the installation of substantial concrete foundations and supports. The flow of corrosive liquids can be measured with proper attention to the materials of construction of all wetted parts, such as the body, rotor, bearings, and fittings.

Applications for turbine flowmeters are found in the water, petroleum, and chemical industries. Water applications include distribution systems within and between water districts.

Petroleum applications include the custody transfer of hydrocarbons. Make sure to operate these flowmeters above approximately 5 percent of maximum flow. Be careful when measuring fluids that are non-lubricating because bearing wear can cause the flowmeter become inaccurate and fail.Turbine flow meters are cost-effective and offer reliable, measurement with minimal flow meter maintenance required.

Turbine meters are simple to operate and maintain, and in service worldwide as a reliable, cost-effective method for achieving accurate flow measurement. Turbine flow meters are designed to maximize throughout and minimize pressure drop, maintain high flow rates over an extended flow range and offer pulse output that is linear to the flow rate. The turbine meters also minimize fiscal measurement uncertainty by delivering high-frequency pulse resolution to account for minute increments of the flow rate.

As fluid flows through the turbine meter, it impinges upon turbine blades that are free to rotate about an axis along the center line of the turbine housing.

The angular rotational velocity of the turbine rotor is directly proportional to the fluid velocity flowing through the turbine. The resulting output is taken by an electrical pickoff s mounted on the flow meter body. The output frequency of the pickoff is proportional to the flow rate. A major advantage of the turbine flow meter is that each electrical pulse is also proportional to a small incremental volume of flow. This incremental output is digital in form, and as such, can be totalized with a maximum error of one pulse regardless of the volume measured.

The rimmed rotor improves pulse resolution, particularly in DN 6-in and larger line size meters. The angle of the turbine blades to the stream governs the angular velocity and the output frequency of the meter. Flow impinging upon the blade causes the rotor to spin at an angular velocity that is proportional to the flow rate.

This design ensures linearity and repeatability, making the turbine meter an ideal device for fiscal flow measurement. The repeatability of the meters ensures quality measurement over a wide range of flow rates, temperatures, compositions and viscosities. Our reliability services are key to avoiding unplanned shutdowns, increasing yield and reducing costs.

Our performance services offer expertise and support to help take your operation to the next level. Emerson is where technology and engineering come together to create solutions for the benefit of our customers, driven without compromise for a world in action.

For more specific information on how we use cookies and to change your cookie preferences, see our Cookie Notice. Learn more here.Our company supplies a large range of gas turbine meters that can be used in a wide range of applications. Our product portfolio includes a wide array of gas turbine meters which are mainly used in factories, oil rigs and production systems for all types of applications.

We are happy to provide our customers with the latest gas turbine meters along with worldwide fast shipping. Feel free to contact us via the form below and we will get back to you as soon as possible.

Gas turbine meters our company supplies are largely used for calculating volume output of the gas used. They are made of aluminium which adds extra strength when receiving large volumes of gas flow. The volume is displayed on an electronic or mechanical index. The latest gas turbine meters we provide combine ease of use and precision. Gas turbine meters are available in many versions of flow, diameters and pressure.

turbine flow meter

Gas turbine meters respond to a large number requirements in the field of industrial measurement. Our gas turbine meters operate on measuring rotation. The rotation of the gas turbine wheel is identical to the volume of the flow. Gas turbine meter bearings are lubricated which ensures maintenance-free operations for a larger period of time. Thanks to their proven measuring principle and the quality of the materials used, the gas turbine meters are one of the most reliable instrument used in operations.

Gas meters allow precise control of the flow gaseous and thus optimise energy needs. All modern type of gas meter is equipped with an electronic totaliser. They make it possible to to record the total volume, the display of the flow, desired volume at the specified day. This allows the user to check the gas flow at any time. Gas turbine meters can be easily mounted on a pipe.

turbine flow meter

A filter is provided with meters which protects the turbine from dust and outside material.Skip to main content. Some sizes are Prime eligible.

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turbine flow meter

Sell on Amazon Start a Selling Account.Remember Me. One type of flow meter that can be used for various liquid or gas flow measuring and monitoring applications across multiple industries is the turbine-based flow meter. You may have already come across turbine flow meters in your research, but what exactly are turbine flow meters used for and how do they work? Turbine flow meters utilize the Pelton turbine wheel concept, which uses a miniature turbine wheel supported on a very small sapphire shaft held in position by two sapphire bearings.

Because the wheel and shaft are extremely lightweight, the turbine wheel virtually floats in the liquid passing through, relieving the force on the shaft and bearings and eliminating wear.

Simple to install, operate and manage, turbine flow meters leverage mechanical energy from the flow sample to rotate the wheel in the flow stream. The rotational speed of the turbine wheel increases proportionally to the volumetric flow rate. Turbine flow meters are used to measure clean, dry gases and liquids such as hydrocarbons, chemicals, gases and vapors, fuels and other types of liquids with lower viscosity, and for applications requiring highly accurate and precise measurements.

Typically, their applications are found across various industries such as petroleum, automotive, laboratory and water treatment. In some cases, applications are also found in the beverage and chemical industry as well. While a great option to consider, turbine flow meters are not ideal for every flow measurement and control application.

Turbine flow meters come with their own set of advantages and disadvantages. Some of the advantages of turbine flow meters include:. Turbine flow meters are great options for those looking for an easy-to-use, low-cost, accurate and highly accurate flow meter. If you have further questions, contact the team at McMillan Flow Products who would be more than happy to answer your questions! All content authored in English. This site is currently being translated automatically and may contain errors or other misinformation.

For most accurate results, please utilize this site in English. Previous Next.

Applications for a Turbine Flow Meter

How do turbine flow meters work? What are some applications for turbine flow meters? A few examples of applications include: Particle cleanliness testing Water treatment Monitoring input flow to an analyzer Dispensing chemicals in a laboratory What are the advantages and disadvantages of turbine flow meters?Recently I was having a discussion with a colleague of mine regarding flow measurement and some of the typical issues he encounters. Without question, one of the most common issues is an incorrectly sized flow meter, followed by poor installation.

I spent the last 14 years of my career working in the flow measurement space and I would have to concur with his assessment. Fluid flowing through a pipe generally assumes a desirable flow profile at or near the center of the pipe. Flow disturbances distortion and swirl can occur via improper flow meter installation, thus reducing measurement accuracy. Aside from improper sizing, material compatibility, and meter misapplication, a number of issues with flow measurement arise from improper piping practices.

A lot of time, effort and money can go into the purchase of a flow meter. However, it seems that not as much consideration is given to its installation. Perhaps this is due to limited changes that can be made to existing piping time and expensethe end user having a technology they are not familiar with and making assumptions based on what they have done in the past, or a mechanical contractor having limited experience with various flow meter technologies, etc.

In this case, when talking about improper installation, I am not referring to improper piping alignment or meter orientation although both are issues and need proper attention depending on the application.

What I am referring to is the placement of the meter in the process piping and its relation to valves, elbows, strainers, reducers, and a host of other devices that can be inserted into the piping that can have an effect on the flow profile.

In others words, I am going to address the truth about upstream pipe diameters for some of the more popular flow technologies. Some of this is pretty basic so I apologize in advance. What I hope to do is give you some key questions to ask, resources to go to, and general guidelines to follow. There are no bad questions when trying to determine proper meter placement.

Each technology has specific recommendations for meter placement and recommended pipe diameters upstream and downstream. Most, if not all, flow measurement professionals have been through extensive training on their products and are familiar with a host of applications.

They should be your first call when you have a questions or concerns about where the meter should be placed in the pipe. In many cases, these professionals will assess each installation and give you the recommendations needed to ensure proper performance. In this case, one technology does not fit all applications. If you find that your flow meter performance is suffering from installation effects, all is not lost. Ideally, the meter could be moved to a more suitable location which would ensure proper upstream and downstream straight pipe.

Another option would be to change the type of meter or change to a different design of the same kind of meter. For example, changing from a standard vortex to a reducer vortex.

Turbine Flowmeter Technology

As there are multiple flow technologies available, so too are the recommendations for proper meter placement in your process piping. While each manufacturer may have different guidelines, below is a general overview of typical upstream and downstream piping requirements to get you started.

For an orifice plate, the straight run required depends on both the beta ratio of the entire installation and on the type of upstream components in the pipeline. However, if you are using a conditioning orifice plate with a. To ensure specified accuracy over a broader range of process conditions first, ensure that the meter is piped in a manner so it always remains full.

Second, install the flow meter a minimum of 5 straight pipe diameters upstream and a minimum of 2 straight pipe diameters downstream from the electrode plane. Elbows, reducers, etc upstream of the sensor will distort the flow profile and so adequate straight runs need to be accounted for. Typical recommendations suggest 35 straight pipe diameters upstream and 5 straight pipe diameters downstream. If you find that you do not have sufficient upstream straight run, some manufacturers allow for K factor corrections that could reduce this requirement.

If using temperature and pressure compensation to derive mass flow, then the temperature and pressure transmitters should be installed downstream of the flowmeter at a minimum of straight pipe diameters. The main guidelines for Coriolis sensors are to make sure the sensor tubes remain full. If installed in a vertical pipe, make sure the fluid liquid and slurries flow up and gasses flow down and do not use the meter to align misaligned pipe.

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Additionally, sufficient back pressure should be maintained to avoid any potential flashing or cavitation. The general guidelines suggested by manufacturers of turbine flow meters are straight pipe diameters inclusive of the strainer straight pipe runs upstream and 5 straight pipe diameters straight pipe runs downstream.

The upstream requirement can increase if, for example, there are two elbows in different planes up to 50 straight pipe diameters. Alternatively, the upstream straight run requirement can be reduced if some form of flow straightening is used, down to 10 straight pipe diameters upstream.Turbine flow meter use a free-spinning turbine wheel to measure fluid velocity, much like a miniature windmill installed in the flow stream.

If this goal is achieved, the turbine blades will achieve a rotating tip velocity directly proportional to the linear velocity of the fluid, whether that fluid is a gas or a liquid:. The mathematical relationship between fluid velocity and turbine tip velocity — assuming frictionless conditions — is a ratio defined by the tangent of the turbine blade angle:.

For a 45 deg blade angle, the relationship iswith tip velocity equaling fluid velocity. Smaller blade angles each blade closer to parallel with the fluid velocity vector result in the tip velocity being a fractional proportion of fluid velocity.

Turbine tip velocity is quite easy to sense using a magnetic sensor, generating a voltage pulse each time one of the ferromagnetic turbine blades passes by. Also See : Turbine Flow meter Animation.

It is the frequency of this signal that represents fluid velocity, and therefore volumetric flow rate. A cut-away demonstration model of a turbine flow meter is shown in the following photograph.

The blade sensor may be seen protruding from the top of the flow tube, just above the turbine wheel:. As one might expect, turbine flow meters are very sensitive to swirl in the process fluid flow stream. In order to achieve high accuracy, the flow profile must not be swirling in the vicinity of the turbine, lest the turbine wheel spin faster or slower than it should to represent the velocity of a straight-flowing fluid.

A minimum straight-pipe length of 20 pipe diameters upstream and 5 pipe diameters downstream is typical for turbine flow meters in order to dissipate swirl from piping disturbances. One advantage of mechanical turbine flow meters, though, is the ability to maintain a running total of gas usage by turning a simple odometer-style totalizer.

This design is often used when the purpose of the flow meter is to track total fuel gas consumption e. In an electronic turbine flow meter, volumetric flow is directly and linearly proportional to pickup coil output frequency.

We may express this relationship in the form of an equation:. Dimensional analysis confirms the validity of this equation. Using units of GPS gallons per second and pulses per gallon, we see that the product of these two quantities is indeed pulses per second equivalent to cycles per second, or Hz :.

Using algebra to solve for flow Qwe see that it is the quotient of frequency and k factor that yields a volumetric flow rate for a turbine flow meter:. The inherent linearity of a turbine flow meter is a tremendous advantage over nonlinear flow elements such as venturi tubes and orifice plates because this linearity results in a much greater turndown ratio for accurate flow measurement.

Contrasted against common orifice-type meters which are usually limited to turndown ratios of at best, turbine meters commonly exceed turndown ratios of If pickup signal frequency directly represents volumetric flow rate, then the total number of pulses accumulated in any given time span will represent the amount of fluid volume V passed through the turbine meter over that same time span. We may express this algebraically as the product of average flow rate Qaverage frequency fk factor, and time:.

We may achieve approximately the same result simply by using a digital counter circuit to totalize pulses output by the pickup coil and a microprocessor to calculate volume in whatever unit of measurement we deem appropriate.

As with the orifice plate flow element, standards have been drafted for the use of turbine flowmeters as precision measuring instruments in gas flow applications, particularly the custody transfer of natural gas. The American Gas Association has published a standard called the Report 7 specifying the installation of turbine flow meters for high-accuracy gas flow measurement, along with the associated mathematics for precisely calculating flow rate based on turbine speed, gas pressure, and gas temperature.

Pressure and temperature compensation is relevant to turbine flow meters in gas flow applications because the density of the gas is a strong function of both pressure and temperature. The turbine wheel itself only senses gas velocity, and so these other factors must be taken into consideration to accurately calculate mass flow or standard volumetric flow; e. This way, the any effects due to the piping before and after the flowmeter will be incorporated in the measured k factor.

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